Studien zum Corona-Virus

Erhöhung der Darmpermeabilität durch Gluten
  • Drago, S., Asmar, R. E., Pierro, M. D., Clemente, M. G., Sapone, A. T. A., Thakar, M., … Fasano, A. (2006). Gliadin, zonulin and gut permeability: Effects on celiac and non-celiac intestinal mucosa and intestinal cell lines. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 41(4), 408–419. doi: 10.1080/00365520500235334
  • Lactobakterien verbessert Darmintegrität und erhöht Killerzellaktivität und Gamma-Interferon-Bildung
  • Hessle, Hanson, & Wold. (1999). Lactobacilli from human gastrointestinal mucosa are strong stimulators of IL-12 production. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 116(2), 276–282. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2249.1999.00885.x
Ingwer: antivirale Aktivität
  • Aboubakr, H. A., Nauertz, A., Luong, N. T., Agrawal, S., El-Sohaimy, S. A. A., Youssef, M. M., & Goyal, S. M. (2016). In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Clove and Ginger Aqueous Extracts against Feline Calicivirus, a Surrogate for Human Norovirus. Journal of Food Protection, 79(6), 1001–1012. doi: 10.4315/0362-028x.jfp-15-593
  • Arora, R., Chawla, R., Marwah, R., Arora, P., Sharma, R. K., Kaushik, V., … Bhardwaj, J. R. (2011). Potential of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Preventive Management of Novel H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Pandemic: Thwarting Potential Disasters in the Bud. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011, 1–16. doi: 10.1155/2011/586506
  • Chang, J. S., Wang, K. C., Yeh, C. F., Shieh, D. E., & Chiang, L. C. (2013). Fresh ginger (Zingiber officinale) has anti-viral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 145(1), 146–151. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.10.043
  • Denyer, C. V., Jackson, P., Loakes, D. M., Ellis, M. R., & Young, D. A. B. (1994). Isolation of Antirhinoviral Sesquiterpenes from Ginger (Zingiber officinale). Journal of Natural Products, 57(5), 658–662. doi: 10.1021/np50107a017
  • Rasool, A., Khan, MU., Ali, MA., Anjum, A., Ahmed, I., Aslam, A., Rafique, G., Masood, S., Nawaz, M. (2017). Anti-Avian influenza virus H9N2 activity of aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinalis (Ginger) & Allium sativum (Garlic) in chick embryos. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 30. 1341-1344.
Die Rolle von Zink für die antivirale Immunabwehr
  • Read, S. A., Obeid, S., Ahlenstiel, C., & Ahlenstiel, G. (2019). The Role of Zinc in Antiviral Immunity. Advances in Nutrition, 10(4), 696–710. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmz013
  • Zinkmangel belastet das Immunsystem und führt zu geringerer Aktivität der Killerzellen
  • Rolles, B., Maywald, M., & Rink, L. (2018). Influence of zinc deficiency and supplementation on NK cell cytotoxicity. Journal of Functional Foods, 48, 322–328. doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2018.07.027
Glutathionperoxidase braucht Selen
  • Ghneim, H. K., & Al-Sheikh, Y. A. (2011). Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Glutathione Peroxidase and Catalase Activities in Senescent Cultured Human Fibroblasts. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 59(2-4), 127–138. doi: 10.1159/000334069
  • Ha, E.-J., & Smith, A. M. (2009). Selenium-dependent Glutathione Peroxidase Activity is Increased in Healthy Post-menopausal Women. Biological Trace Element Research, 131(1), 90–95. doi: 10.1007/s12011-009-8346-5
Body-Guard für gesunde Mitochondrien: Mangan
  • Flynn, J. M., & Melov, S. (2013). SOD2 in mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 62, 4–12. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.05.027
  • Haase, H. (2018). Innate Immune Cells Speak Manganese. Immunity, 48(4), 616–618. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2018.03.031
  • Rakkola, R., Matikainen, S., & Nyman, T. A. (2007). Proteome analysis of human macrophages reveals the upregulation of manganese-containing superoxide dismutase after toll-like receptor activation. Proteomics, 7(3), 378–384. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200600582
Schutz vor Infekten bei höherem Vitamin D-Spiegel
  • Martineau, A. R., Jolliffe, D. A., Hooper, R. L., Greenberg, L., Aloia, J. F., Bergman, P., … Camargo, C. A. (2017). Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. Bmj, i6583. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i6583
  • Pham, H., Rahman, A., Majidi, A., Waterhouse, M., & Neale, R. E. (2019). Acute Respiratory Tract Infection and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(17), 3020. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16173020
Vitamin C stärkt das Immunsystem
  • Carr, A., & Maggini, S. (2017). Vitamin C and Immune Function. Nutrients, 9(11), 1211. doi:10.3390/nu9111211
  • Hemilä, H., & Chalker, E. (2019). Vitamin C Can Shorten the Length of Stay in the ICU: A Meta-Analysis. Nutrients, 11(4), 708. doi:10.3390/nu11040708
  • Maxfield L, Crane JS. Vitamin C Deficiency (Scurvy) [Updated 2019 Nov 19]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493187/
Antivirale Kapazität Lysin
  • Harakeh, S., Diab-Assaf, M., Abu-El-Ardat, K., Niedzwiecki, A., & Rath, M. (2006). Mechanistic aspects of apoptosis induction by l-lysine in both HTLV-1-positive and -negative cell lines. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 164(1-2), 102–114. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2006.09.005
Antivirale Kapazität Omega 3 Fettsäuren
  • Awadin, W. F., Eladl, A. H., El-Shafei, R. A., El-Adl, M. A., Aziza, A. E., Ali, H. S., & Saif, M. A. (2020). Effect of omega-3 rich diet on the response of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) infected with Newcastle disease virus or avian influenza virus H9N2. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 228, 108668. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2019.108668
  • Leu, G.-Z., Lin, T.-Y., & Hsu, J. T. (2004). Anti-HCV activities of selective polyunsaturated fatty acids. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 318(1), 275–280. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.04.019
  • Morita, M., Kuba, K., Ichikawa, A., Nakayama, M., Katahira, J., Iwamoto, R., … Imai, Y. (2013). The Lipid Mediator Protectin D1 Inhibits Influenza Virus Replication and Improves Severe Influenza. Cell, 153(1), 112–125. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.02.027
Antiviral Activity of lauric acid, caprinic acid and monolaurin (Kokosöl)
  • Bartolotta S, Garcí CC, Candurra NA, Damonte EB. Effect of fatty acids on arenavirus replication: inhibition of virus production by lauric acid. Archives of Virology, 2001; 146(4): 777-790.
  • Dayrit CS. Coconut Oil in Health and Disease: Its and Monolaurin’s Potential as Cure for FOR HIV/AIDS. XXXVII Cocotech Meeting. Chennai, India. July 25, 2000.
  • Grant A, Seregin A, Huang C, Kolokoltsova O, Brasier A, Peters C, Paessler S. Junín Virus Pathogenesis and Virus Replication. Viruses, 2012; 4: 2317-2339.
  • Hierholzer JC, Kabara JJ. In-vitro effects of monolaurin compounds on enveloped RNA and DNA viruses. Journal of Food Safety, 1982; 4(1): 1-12
  • Hilmarsson H, Traustason BS, Kristmundsdóttir T, Thormar H. Virucidal activities of medium- and long-chain fatty alcohols and lipids against respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 2: comparison at different pH levels. Archives of Virology 2007: 152(12):2225-36.
  • Hornung B, Amtmann E, Sauer G. Lauric acid inhibits the maturation of vesicular stomatitis virus. Journal of General Virology, 1994; 75: 353-361.
  • Piret J, Déseomeaux A, Bergeron MG, et al. Sodium lauryl sulfate, a microbicide effective against enveloped and nonenveloped viruses. Current Drug Targets 2002; 3(1):17-30
  • Sands JA, Landin P, Auperin D, Reinhardt A. Enveloped Virus Inactivation by Fatty Acid Derivatives. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 1979; 15(1): 27-31.
  • Widhiarta KD. Virgin Coconut Oil for HIV - Positive People. Cord, 2016; 32 (1): 50-57.
Viroporin-Hemmung: Kupfer
  • To, J., & Torres, J. (2019). Viroporins in the Influenza Virus. Cells, 8(7), 654. doi: 10.3390/cells8070654
Reset Immune System with Intermittent Fasting
  • Cabo, R. D., & Mattson, M. P. (2019). Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Health, Aging, and Disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 381(26), 2541–2551. doi: 10.1056/nejmra1905136
  • Cheng, C.-W., Adams, G. B., Perin, L., Wei, M., Zhou, X., Lam, B. S., … Longo, V. D. (2014). Prolonged Fasting Reduces IGF-1/PKA to Promote Hematopoietic-Stem-Cell-Based Regeneration and Reverse Immunosuppression. Cell Stem Cell, 14(6), 810–823. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2014.04.014
Corona Covid-19 Review
  • Empfehlung: Ergänzung von Vitamin A, B, C, D, Omega-3 Fettsäuren, Selen und Zink sowie Überprüfung des Eisenspiegels (Anmerkung Eisenspeicher Ferritin)
  • Zhang, L., & Liu, Y. (2020). Potential interventions for novel coronavirus in China: A systematic review. Journal of Medical Virology, 92(5), 479–490. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25707
Deutschland ist Mikronährstoff-Unterversorgt: Vitamin A, C, D, Zink, Jod, Selen – das sind wichtige Mikronährstoffe fürs ein funktionierendes Immunsystem
  • Max-Rubner Institut (Hg.) Nationale Verzehrsstudie II. Ergebnisbericht Teil 2. Die bundesweite Befragung zur Ernährung von Jugendlichen und Erwachsenen. Max-Rubner Institut, Karlsruhe (2008)
  • Bundeszentrum für Ernährung. Selenmangel nimmt zu. Stand 01.03.2017. URL. https://www.bzfe.de/inhalt/selenmangel-nimmt-zu-29778.html Zugriff 02.04.20

Danksagung:
Mein Dank für die Unterstützung bei der internationalen Literaturzusammenstellung gilt folgenden Wissenschaftlern:
Dr. Jens Freese, Institut für Sporternährung und Ernährungsimmunologie, Köln
Uwe Gröber, Akademie & Zentrum für Mikronährstoffmedizin, Essen
Dr. med. Volker Schmiedel, Baar, Schweiz